Double separation frames
The Hoffman separators are the most utilized in the modern beekeeping. The distance among the vertical plans of the combs is almost exactly the width of the separators.
A very frequent separation with the European bee is 35 mm. With sealed combs of working larvae of 25 mm, the runner in transit is of 10 mm. In the case of the Africanized bee, this runner can be reduced to 8.5 and as the brood combs have 24 lines, the distance among plans is 32.5 millimetres. In the book of Piet Segeren the distance is 32.
This drawing appears in the second paginates of the program. The horizontal position was chosen to show the stick to natural size in a screen of common video. With 2, the separator of 41 mm, produces supers of 9 frames, well with Europeans just as much as with Africanized bees. With 1, a distance of 24 or 29 millimetre produces the narrow separations of the nest: 32.5 ó 35 millimetres. The third one and quarter pages show the assemblies for the nest and the supers. The width of the screen is used as width of box. Certain adjustment of size is possible by changing the number of pixels by centimetre. There are two horizontal, upper and lower sticks. As opposed to what happens with other frames, these sticks are identical. The vertical also are equals, but the extreme, indicated with green square, is inverted. A calibre of 11 mm is recommended for all the sticks. There is a central screw that is the pivot of support of the frames. This screw is of 19 lines, 19 – 11 = 8, (ordinary thread ¾ by ¼.)
The frames can rotate both horizontally as vertically. These Danzenbaker’s frames have several advantages: the improvement in the adhesion of the wax to the wood and two compartments can be manipulated without removing the upper assembly. With the frames utilized of bframe and other seemed, always boxes were utilized; the inversion of compartments was inversion of the boxes. With the last two versions of frames of double separation thought itself about sections without box, formed only by frames. This point is inseparable of the box that is recommended for the hive without box and its relation with other hives.
The modern hive provides adequate space for the laying of the queen and the development of the brood nest. The management of honey supers is important to avoid the congestion of the brood nest, one of the causes of swarming impulse. Each box, called compartment, is a unit of management. Two hives of extensive use equal compartments: the Langstroth and the Dadant. When equal sections are utilized, the formation of new families or division is facilitated. Frequently the adjective “divisible" is utilized to distinguish these hives. Although this description proposes the Dadant divisible, is applicable to any another hive of equal sections. The Dadant divisible utilizes the super 6 5/8 of the Dadant Modified. With other modern hives the Dadant adopted the wide one and the long one of the Langstroth hive; the flats and ceilings are common and the only measure that is distinguished is the high one of the boxes. In Root’s ABC the Hubert’s hive can be observed. The frames form the compartment; they are hitched with a cord to fix them. Is a matter of a hive of a single level, like the actual Kenya. Bframe dispenses with the boxes. The frames that form it are compatible with boxes and form sections that are superimposed like in the majority of the modern hives. For the Dadant super, 6 5/8, working with the Africanized bee, two units in the brood nest with 11 frames each one is utilized and the necessary supers with 9 frames. The modern version of the Dadant Modified in Africa (Smith, Beekeeping in the Tropics) utilizes different separators for the brood nest and the supers. As the greater separation about the supers is known produces wider honeycombs, easy uncap by hand or with machine. These frames are more comfortable. The hive Langtroth divisible, of use in the United States, works itself often with manual separation of 9 frames in the super. The frames are unique but the stemmed separation presents several disadvantages: additional time to place supers, difficulties of transportation and the risk of crushing of the adjacent faces of caps.
The elements of Bframe are identical; a frame called wedge is the only exception. The different separations are produce by the position of the adjacent faces. In the Dadant’s super the space of bee among sections is 6 5/8 - 6 1/4 = 3/8. As the minimum of the rank is 1/4 a separation 5/16 is adequate. A stow of compartments without box, of 4 units, is 1/4 inch lower that the same one stow of compatible boxes units. This small difference assures that these boxes are supported on the boards and not on the extremes of the vertical sticks. The frames in bframe are also Danzenbaker or pivoted in the center. One of the techniques that are recommended is the use of a pair of thick vertical wires (radios of bicycle) for the construction of honeycombs without utilizing wax foundation. The Danzenbaker’s frame can be inverted to close the lower runners between the honeycomb and the framework. In this way (ABC of Root,) good adhesion of the honeycombs to the wood is obtained. The use of two vertical wires in frames 6 1/4 ó 6 3/4 inches gives the necessary firmness for the centrifugation.
The design is good for spin radial extractors; the inversion of new honeycombs is necessary. The construction of honeycombs without need of wax foundation requires certain composition of age of the families; is known that the families "young", during the expansion of the brood nest, they build few honeycombs with drone cells. The empty frames are placed among honeycombs well done in narrow separation; the natural distance of the vertical plans guarantees honeycombs framed with very few or any drone cell. (See in the Bee and The Hive an experiment: to reduce the distance among vertical plans to avoid the construction of drone cells.) To form units of management with assemblies of frames a pair of connectors is utilized. These connectors hold the two extreme frames. The handle can be shorter for nuclei, or small "traps" to capture swarms. The connector is composed of a central piece of wood, the metallic pieces of the extremes and a tiny board to invest the assemblies.
The inversion of frames or sets does not seem to have influence in brood rearing. On the other hand, it is evident that the surface of evaporation of the nectar enlarges. For a viscosity and angle from the cells the superficial tension determines the thickness of the layer of nectar; when is inverted the honeycomb the layer owes that to be finer and the surface of evaporation enlarges. Certain precautions of space are necessary when sets are inverted during a strong flow of nectar.
The wedge is necessary in the brood chamber of the box less compartments. It is a matter of a closed frame of 24 ó 29 mm; can leave first because is not hooked in the separators. It is preferably this resource to loosen the handle. The connector should not be untied but to condition that be necessary to change the extreme frames.
Some advantages of the hive without box are mentioned subsequently:
1. Fast manipulation of the sections.
2. Emphasis in compartments management techniques instead of management of frames.
3. Savings of wood.
4. Decrease of the weight.
5. Sure position in the honey super transportation.
6. Uncapping and centrifugation in situ without disarming the sections.
7. Construction of honeycombs without using stamped wax.
8. Easy shoulder transportation in separated zones, parks, national reserves and dispersed exploitations.
9. Permanent wires.
10. Improvisation of "traps" to hunt swarms.
11. Immediate use of drone brood for animal diet, because the permanent wires. For example fish feeding.
12. Easy armed of the frames without utilizing nails.
1. It cannot be utilized without compatible boxes in temperate zones or when frosts are produced or very cold seasons.
2. Difficulties in the nomadic exploitations. The nomad’s rafts are excepted when mobilized at night.
3. Adhesion of the vertical sticks in box hives, among compartments. It enlarges the necessary force to separate units.
4. The length of the of separators causes stronger frame adhesion.
5. Management more complex of the smoker in sections without box by the additional orifices, above all in wide separation.
6. Greater risk of pillage before an eventual error of management.
7. Escapes use impossibility to oust supers.
8. Difficulties in the use of carbolic acid to oust supers.
9. Difficulties in the use of queen excluders.